Stopping Babies From Being Ritually Killed in Nigeria

 

2-year-old Gift was condemned by her community when her mother died shortly after childbirth. Among some clans among the Bassa Komo people is a traditional belief that children who lost their mother during or shortly after children are evil. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

 

In 2016, I learned about a community in the outskirts of the Nigerian capital city of Abuja that was practicing a generations-old cultural ritual that involves killing babies. I read about it in a local newspaper called The Abuja Times. The story shook my bones. I already knew about infanticide rituals in southern Nigeria and how Mary Slessor, the Scottish Christian missionary working in Nigeria in the late 1880s led a serious campaign to end it. In the end, her efforts paid off and the ritual drastically reduced.

So, to learn that folks in the Nigerian capital were still killing babies in this day and age seemed surreal and outlandish.

I began trying to see how to do a story on it myself. My aim was to go even further, to visit the communities that were engaged in this practice. I was intrigued. In September this year, I finally got a chance to do the story. I connected with a Christian missionary named Pastor Steven Ajayi. He’s Nigerian and he’d been working in the outskirts of Abuja for 20 years, trying to encourage communities to eradicate the infanticide ritual.

I reported the story for Voice of America, producing a text piece, a video and some photographs.

Here’s what I got:

 

 

 

 

Nine-month-old David drops to his knees, crawls toward a bottle of milk on the counter and begins to whimper. A young lady picks him up and rests him on her hips.

“David,” she says. “Are you a hungry boy?” David coos and grins. “What about Davida? Is she hungry?”

Davida is sleeping on one of the dozens of cots that line the yellow walls in the nursery.

David and his twin sister, Davida, have been branded evil by his community, the Kaida village on the outskirts of the Nigerian capital, Abuja. There, people of the Bassa Komo ethnic group kill babies that are perceived to be evil. Twins are believed to have bad spirits that will bring misfortune upon their communities.

The killing of such “evil” babies takes many forms, including being suffocated, crushed, poisoned with a deadly mixture of plants and herbs, or left to die.

 

Nine-month-old David is perceived to be evil because he is a twin. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

Christian missionary Steven Olusola Ajayi opened the Vine Heritage Home in 2004, a shelter for so-called “evil” children.

“If they are not here, I don’t think any of them would be alive,” Ajayi said.

For more than 20 years, Ajayi has been working with 40-plus communities with traditions of ritual infanticide in the Abuja area.

 

Watch the video story

Among those labeled evil and killed are twins, triplets and other multiple-birth babies; albinos; babies born with cleft palate; children with enlarged heads; babies whose upper teeth appear before the lower teeth; and babies whose mother died during or shortly after childbirth.

“They believe that leaving a child who lost his mother, that he is going to spread his evil that he used to kill the mother among the villagers, so they don’t want them to live,” Ajayi said.

Of the 119 children at the rescue center, three-week-old Dominion is the youngest. Dominion’s father brought the baby there after the mother died following childbirth.

These days, some communities are willing to give away “evil children,” rather than kill them. Ajayi says this is a sign of progress. “They don’t kill them, but they don’t want them,” he said.

It’s also a sign his 20-year grass-roots effort is having an effect.

 

Dominion, is three-weeks-old. His father brought him to Vine Heritage Home Foundation after his wife died after giving birth to Dominion. In Dominion’s community, children whose mothers during or shortly after childbirth as seen as evil. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017. Nigeria

 

Steven Olusola Ajayi, a Christian missionary, rescues children from communities that practice ritual infanticide, killing babies that are perceived to be evil. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

 

Witches, wizards

In Kaida, Aisha Ayuba is pregnant with her seventh child. A few months ago, she delivered twins, but decided to have them taken to the rescue center.

“I advised my husband that we take them there,” she said. “Twins don’t survive here.” But when asked why, she shrugged and looked away.

Alkali Magaji is the spiritual leader of Kaida.

“Our people believe that these children come from the evil one and no one wants it. We have a god we call Otauchi and we offer the children to that god. We suspect those children to be witches or wizards. That’s why we eliminate them,” Magaji said.

Ayuba’s mother-in-law gave birth to two sets of twins decades ago. The babies were killed, and afterward the family erected an altar. The family believes the spirits of the twin babies live in the altar, and twice a year the family offers sacrifices of chickens and goats to the spirits, believing this will prevent them from coming back to haunt the community.

The babies in the Vine Heritage Home Foundation have all been branded evil by their native communities. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

 

Government campaign

The government began investigating infanticide in 2013, and kicked off a campaign to eradicate the practice. The investigation team recommended strategies for an anti-infanticide campaign, including building primary health care centers and primary schools.

Dr. Matthew Ashikeni, executive secretary of the FCT Primary Health Care Board, was part of the investigation panel.

“There was need for enlightenment, education, so the communities would know … medical science has a capacity to correct most, if not all, such defects. Billboards were erected in strategic places in those area councils, informing them that that practice was the stone-age practice and should not be done now where we have opportunity and exposure to science, education,” Ashikeni said.

Dozens of babies were killed each year. While it is difficult to ascertain the rate of infanticide, officials say it is declining.

 

The Vine Heritage Home Foundation opened in 2004 in the outskirts of the Nigerian capital of Abuja as a shelter for so-called “evil children.” Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

 

Breaking the cycle

In Kutara village, seven pairs of twins are living within the community. Ajayi said it’s one of the first villages to end baby killings. The local chief, Bature Dangana, tells VOA he is happy seeing twins living among them.

 

Bature Dangana, the chief of Kutara village in the outskirts of the Nigerian capital of Abuja, encouraged his community to end ritual baby killings. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

 

Ten-year-old twins, Yauseh and Asana, sit next to their mother Zainabu. The girls are among the first set of twins in Kutara village allowed to live, instead of being killed. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

But in other communities, the practice has gone further underground, committed in deep secrecy. Samuel Tanko, a missionary working in Kaida, said a set of twins born there earlier this year has “disappeared,” according to the local residents.

Tanko says the practice is so deeply interwoven into the local spiritual beliefs that it will be difficult to completely eradicate it.

At the rescue center, the children go on with each day, not knowing if they will see their parents again or visit their native communities, but they are alive.

Steven Ajayi takes care of 119 children who live at the Vine Heritage Home that he opened in 2004. It’s a shelter for children who have been branded as evil in their communities. Photo by Chika Oduah. 2017

 

 

By Chika Oduah | Published in Voice of America on October 4, 2017

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